a) See Intestinal microbiota and metabolites – Implications for broiler chicken health and performance by Rinttilä and Apajalahti (2013).

b) Starting from the physical form of the feed, which stimulate the healthy GIT. In addition, we should supplement the feed with substance to nourish the microflora like the high quality fibers, probiotics and acidifiers.

  • Using highly digestible feed raw materials.
  • Use updated matrix values for the raw materials
  • Measure the heat damage effect protein sources like SBM
  • Limiting the usage of poorly digestible RM like C.gluten and DDGs.
  • Make sure the feed is not a source of infection to the birds
  • Formulate based on ideal protein concept
  • Supplement the feed with gut health modulators

The time is different according to the type of markers. For example, the intestinal villi measurements need to kill the animal and send intestinal samples to the lab for histopathology. This process takes longer time compared to do a lesion scoring.

Comparing the biomarkers to the lesion scoring, they should be more accurate and reliable if they have been done in the right way. Cause the markers is measuring the concentration of a certain metabolites related to the microbiota or the host in reaction to the microbiota.

As long as the samples are being taken from the poultry house, we want to do the biomarkers for it, so no fear from contamination because what is present at the house is coming from the birds.